अंतर्राष्ट्रीय सूचना प्रौद्योगिकी विकास परिषद, भारत

APJ Abdulkalam- Page-2

Address at the Rashtirya Avishkar Abhiyan

At Talkatora Stadium New Delhi. July 9th 2015 ................


Excellence in thinking and actions
"Learning gives creativity Creativity leads to thinking Thinking provides knowledge Knowledge makes you great"

I am indeed delighted to participate in the Launch of the Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan-2015. My greetings to all the dignitaries, teachers, mentors, experts and students present here. 

I am happy to know that the Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyaan (RAA) envisages to motivate and engage children of the age group from 6-18 years in Science, Mathematics and Technology through observation, experimentation, inference drawing, model building, both through inside and outside classroom activities and processes and ultimately leading to great inventions. I am glad to know that it seeks to create curiosity, excitement and spirit of innovation and exploration amongst school children, by encouraging higher education institutions to assist secondary and elementary schools in the study of Science and Mathematics. Such targeted focus on Science and Mathematics will indeed help the nation to create the new generation of scientists, entrepreneurs and researchers. 

When I am in the midst of young future scientists, I would like to share few thoughts on the topic "Excellence in thinking and actions". 
Why we learn?
Friends, I have often wondered what makes us learn? Why we go to school and universities, read books, surf net for knowledge? So, why we learn?

I have three thoughts to answer this question. First we learn to live. Second we learn to think. And third, we learn to learn. Let me elaborate. 

We learn to live ? as many times since education is for making a person as a good human being and enlightened citizen, then livelihood and ultimately for career growth. Whether you become an officer, a teacher, businessmen or businesswomen, a soldier, an engineer or doctor or scientists, or any profession you cherish to become, the fundamental need is education, education and right type of education. 

We learn to think ? when we use our knowledge which will give us new thoughts. For instance, scientists learn science to give them the ability to think differently and evolve new concepts. The great examples of learn to think in our country Sir CV Raman and in USA - Albert Einstein. 

          Finally, we learn to learn. This is where passion is fueled by knowledge. It is when, an individual immerses himself or herself in all possible means to gain knowledge and reflect on it energized by the zeal of knowing everything about a particular field. Such a person is undeterred by fears of failure and rejection. For instance, Ramanujam, the great mathematician continued his learning of mathematics with full passion and he was not even affected by the fact that he did not do so well in all other subjects. Einstein was immersed in his relativity theory and mass-energy equation as he was learning to learn ? and no worldly criticism and ridicule could make him change his path. Hence, every one of the students should imbibe the thought that "learn to live ? learn to think ? and learn to learn". 

​University professors teaching school students
            I would like to share one experience during my visit to Ireland school, where I was visiting class V & VII. I saw a teacher with big beard teaching the Vth std students. He was having a test tube, a lamp and a match box in his hand. Similarly, in front of all the students, the same lab set up was present. Teacher was teaching how to heat the liquid inside the test-tube and witnessing the vapor formation and the reduction in the liquid level, measuring the level of heat with respect to time. Every one of the student was repeating the experiment and recording the data. So, I could see the real practical experiment, which is happening in front of them to understand the concept of heat. I was very happy to see such a practical environment right in the classroom, not in the labs. I asked the teacher, and teacher said, I am enjoying, because these children are asking questions. He continued and said, I am professor from the nearby the university and I am teaching the student as a part of promoting scientific temperament mission among the students. Professor had a schedule to give number of lectures on chemistry and thermo-dynamics during his vocational assignment at school for six months. See the commitment of the university system towards the nearby schools in making the use of experience of the learned professors to reach out to the young minds periodically. This has become the system as a part of the higher education system.

          Then the Principal took me to VII Std. There, I saw a physics professor having 25 years of experience in the university. He is teaching how a wind mill is working and generating the electricity with the real working model in front of every one of the students. In Ireland, the higher education system has the responsibility to reach out the school?s student as a part of their academic frame work. Hence, every professor has to teach at least six months in schools during their every three years. I have mentioned this experience and the Manifesto for School Education and Higher Education in our book "A Manifesto for Change" jointly written by me and my friend V. Ponraj. 
Invention and discovery
         Friends, what is invention and what is discovery? How are they different from each other? Let me explain. In 1800s when Michael Faraday studied about electricity and formed the Faraday's law and found the properties of electricity it was a discovery. About 80 years later, an American, Thomas Edison studied the laws of Faraday and his work, and used electricity to make an instrument which could give light. It was called a bulb. Bulb is an invention. You can see that discoveries and inventions are different but yet help each other. 

        Dear young friends, when I see you all in Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan, I was asking myself two questions. One is; what are the unique traits, aspiring young scientists should possess. The second one is; how many of you from this large gathering will take science as a life time mission. Let me touch on the first one. 
Unique traits for aspiring young scientist
Science is born out of human curiosity turning into question? ? question? ? question? till you get an answer either theoretically or experimentally or both. The question is, you young fellows; how many of you have that characteristics? 

         Excellence in thinking and action is the foundation for scientific research. What is excellence? Friends, you all belong to a student community which should stand for a culture of excellence. And excellence is not by accident. It is a process, where an individual, (or organization or nation,) continuously strives to better oneself. The performance standards are set by themselves, they work on their dreams with focus and are prepared to take calculated risks and do not get deterred by failures as they move towards their dreams. Then they step up their dreams as they tend to reach the original targets. They strive to work to their potential, in the process, they increase their performance thereby multiplying further their potential and this is an unending life cycle phenomenon. They are not in competition with anyone else, but themselves. That is the culture of excellence. I am sure; each one of you will aspire to become unique with culture of excellence.
My interaction with students of science
Friends, I have interacted with a number of young scientists and experts in my interactions. Let me share with you my experience in receiving questions and interaction with various young minds. 

       On 27 December 2012, I participated in National Childrens Science Congress at Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. I addressed young scientists with the topic I want to become a scientist. At the end of the talk, I interacted with the young students, one student asked me a searching question; Mr Kalam, basically I am good student. I learn and understand the lessons what teachers taught. Unfortunately, whenever the real examination time started nearing, I slowly lose the confidence in me and the performance in the exam. It has reflected recently in my life. Mr Kalam please tell me, how can I come out of this situation and have confidence in me. 

         It was pin drop silence in the auditorium. This question has shaken many young minds, how I do answer. I looked at the learned dais members in such of answers. But silence ? silence everywhere including the thousands of young scientists in the auditorium. Then I asked all the young scientists and audience, repeat with me, what I am going to say: slowly I started reciting line by line and all the thousand, including the student who had a question. The name of the poem "I will fly and fly". 


I will fly and fly
"I am born with potential. 
I am born with goodness and trust. 
I am born with ideas and dreams. 
I am born with greatness.
I am born with creativity.
I am born with confidence.
I am born with courage, 
I am born with wings, 
So, I am not meant for crawling, 
I have wings, I will fly 
I will fly and fly" 




When the boy repeated this song of confidence, smile radiated from the face of the boy and he said, "Daily I will recite this poem - I will fly". 

       Friends, in December 2012, I interacted with the students at Mega Science Fair, Darbhanga (Bihar), one village boy asked me a question in Hindi; Kalam sahib, "I want to fly myself like a bird, how can I do it". I told him, nothing is impossible. My teacher Prof. Satish Dhawan has made a research on hundreds types of birds and calculated the speed at which the various types of bird?s flight and also aerodynamic data drag and lift graphically. My professor concluded since the birds have fairly light ? weight and their body shape aerodynamically. However, man?s weight is high and he is aerodynamically badly designed to fly, he may need assisting device with small wings. With high energy generated with enthusiasm and assisting device man can fly one day. I told the young fellow of a village and came from Darbhanga. You are a light fellow. With minimum assisting device like a flapping wing, one day you will fly. 

       In Uttar Pradesh State Science Congress at Barabanki, one girl student asked me, Mr Kalam, tell me in an understandable way, what is God?s particle, how it is going to help us? I answered the question which I would like to share with you. 

       Discovery of Higgs Boson: Friends, as young scientist, you may have followed the recent development by two teams at the CERN Laboratory towards the discovery of the God?s Particle, a popular name for an elementary particle called Higgs Boson, named after a great scientist Peter Higgs, Albert Einstein and an Indian scientist SN Bose. 

         Its existence is predicted by the Standard Model to explain why other elementary particles have mass. The Standard Model of Physics is a theory concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, which mediate the dynamics of the known subatomic particles. While this model is able to explain many physical phenomena and particles, it did not explain some fundamental questions. How does an infinitely dense universe become a vast and spacious one? And how is it filled with matter? In theory, as the early universe expanded, energy should have condensed into equal amounts of matter and antimatter, which would then have annihilated each other on contact, reverting to pure energy. On paper, the universe should be empty. But we all know it is filled with billions of galaxies, stars, planets and mostly filled dark matter and energy! 

       This puzzle is being solved as the scientific teams are able to establish the existence of the Higgs Boson, which would be the "mass giving" fundamental particle of the universe. Already progress has been made in this direction, and it may be possible that within the next few years, we would be able to understand better about the God?s Particle and unravel the mystery of why matter exists and how universe came into being. I am sure, some of you, as scientists of tomorrow would be finding such sub-atomic, fundamental physics as a research area for your scientific pursuits and would play a vital role in discovering more about this unique area of particle physics. 

         When I addressed Southern Regional Science Congress at Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, one student started, he said "my teacher today told me that the Sun has got eight planets, only earth has got life and life supporting system for thousands of species. Tell me Mr Kalam, why not other seven planets of our Sun not habituated. I asked the student, what his name and in which class studying. He said, my name is Saravanan and studying in 10+2. My answer to the student was; actually this has been question answered in beautiful way long-long ago by Isaac Newton himself, the discoverer of gravitational law. Newton said, "the only miracle is the earth at a unique distance, gets required warmth and light from the Sun". Let me answer further to your question. What is the environment of other planets? 

        I said, dear young friend, do you know that on Jupiter, three thousand times the size of the earth, a powerful hurricane has been raging for the past 400 years: on Neptune wind speeds reach up to 3200 km per hour, that is over 10 times higher than the strongest gusts mustered by Katrina, USA or Tsunami winds India?s experienced. On Mars, the dust stormed continuously engulfs part of the planet. On Saturn?s Moon Titan it rains liquid methane and Venus is chocked by a thick smoggy blanket of sulfuric acid. Is any species, possible such an environment? Scientific debates going on, but fortunately none of these happen on our planet earth and we are safe. 

        The second question in my mind, as you all know, how many of you will take science as a life time mission. Here I would like to give a life time story of great ones and how to become unique you.
         It is said, "History has proven that those who dare to imagine the impossible are the ones who break all human limitations. In every field of human endeavor, whether science, medicine, sports, the arts, or technology, the names of the people who imagined the impossible and achieved are engraved in our history. By breaking the limits of their imagination, they changed the world." 

        Of course, it is true in India, Sir CV Raman who gave the theory on inelastic scattering of photon in light, Dr Vikram Sarabhai in evolving vision space research, Dr MS Swaminathan in bringing to the nation first green revolution and Dr Verghese Kurien in white revolution, Jamshetji Tata for pioneering in steel manufacture and seeding the science institutions, IISc have broken the barriers of impossibilities. 

Dear young friends, question is, are you willing to be the unique personality? 

Dear friends, Look up, what do you see, the light, the electric bulbs. Immediately, our thoughts go to the inventor Thomas Alva Edison, for his unique contribution towards the invention of electric bulb and his electrical lighting system. 

When you hear the sound of aero plane going over your house, whom do you think of? Wright Brothers proved that man could fly of course at heavy risk and cost. 

Whom does the telephone remind you of? Of course, Alexander Graham Bell. 

        Do you know an Indian Mathematician who did not have formal higher education but had inexhaustible spirit and love for mathematics which took him to contribute to the treasure houses of mathematical research ? some of which are still under serious study and engaging all-available world mathematicians? efforts to establish formal proofs? He was a unique Indian genius who could melt the heart of the most hardened and outstanding Cambridge mathematician Prof. G H Hardy. In fact, it is not an exaggeration to say that it was Prof. Hardy who discovered a great mathematician for the world. This mathematician was of course Srinivasa Ramanujam for whom every number was a divine manifestation. You may all be aware that this year is being celebrated as National Mathematics Year. 


        Friends, there was a great scientific lady who is known for discovering Radium. She won not one, but two Nobel Prizes, one for physics and another for chemistry. Who is she? She is Madam Curie. Madam Curie discovered radium and she was doing research on the effect of radiation on human system. The same radiation which she discovered, affected her and she sacrificed her life for removing the pain of human life.

Friends, I have, so far, met 21 million youth in India and abroad, in a decade's time. I learnt, "every youth wants to be unique, that is, YOU! But the world all around you, is doing its best, day and night, to make you just "everybody else".

      The challenge, my young friends, is that you have to fight the hardest battle, which any human being can ever imagine to fight; and never stop fighting until you arrive at your destined place, that is, a UNIQUE YOU! Friends what will be your tools to fight this battle. There are four proven steps; having a great aim in life before 20 years of age, acquiring knowledge continuously, hard work towards the aim and perseverance to defeat the problem and succeed.

You have seen young friends, how it is important questioning mind a trait of excellence in thinking and action for entering into scientific research. 

         Let me now share a unique story from the life of Alexander Graham Bell and how he invented the telephone.
Great science emanates with a spirit of service
While, successful scientists surely make a lot of wealth, but their motivation is always beyond money. They think in terms of what change they can bring about in other people?s life. Science is driven by compassion and empathy ? often to alleviate the pains of humanity. 

       Look at the telephone; it would remind you of a unique scientist, Alexander Graham Bell. He, besides being a great inventor, was also a man of great compassion and service. In fact, much of the research which led to the development of telephone was directed at finding solutions to the challenges of hearing impaired people in their ability to listen and also talk back. Alexander Graham Bell?s mother and his wife were both hearing impaired and it profoundly changed Bell outlook to science ? he aimed to make devices which would help the hearing impaired. He started a special school in Boston to teach hearing impaired people in novel ways. It was these lessons which inspired him to work with sound and led to the invention of telephone. Can you guess the name of the most famous student of Alexander Graham Bell? It was Helen Keller, the great author, activist and poet who was hearing and visually impaired. As a respect to her teacher, she once said, Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that "inhuman silence which separates and estranges." I have written, with my friend, Srijan Pal Singh, about many such stories from the lives of greatest scientist in my recently published book, Reignited: Scientific Pathway to the Future.
Conclusion
In conclusion, I would like to focus on importance of two great needs: Value to science and scientific magnanimity. I will be explaining these aspects from the great lives of two scientists. 

Value to Science: Let me start with an incident about Sir CV Raman? a Nobel Laureate in Physics for discovering Raman Effect. Raman gives the view that the color of sky is blue due to molecular diffraction, which determines the observed luminosity and in great measures also its color. This led to the birth of the Raman Effect. Raman was in the first group of Bharat Ratna Award winners. Bharat Ratna is the highest civilian honour given by the Government of India to the best of human accomplishment. The award ceremony was to take place in the last week of January, soon after the Republic Day celebrations of 1954. The then President Dr. Rajendra Prasad wrote to Sir CV Raman inviting him to be the personal guest in the Rashtrapati Bhavan (the President's House) at New Delhi, to receive the award. Sir CV Raman wrote a polite letter, regretting his inability to go to Delhi to receive the award. Raman had a noble reason for his inability to attend the investiture ceremony. He explained to the President that he was guiding a Ph.D. student and that the thesis was positively due by the last day of January. The student was valiantly trying to wrap it all up and Raman felt, he had to be by the side of the research student and see that the thesis was finished, sign the thesis as the guide and then have it submitted. Here was a scientist who gave up the pomp of a glittering ceremony associated with the highest honour, because he felt that his duty required him to be by the side of the student. It is this unique trait of giving value to science that builds science. 

Scientific Magnanimity: Now, I would like to narrate an incident which took place during a function where Nobel Laureate Prof. Norman E Borlaug, a well known agricultural scientist and a partner in India's first Green revolution, was conferred with Dr. MS Swaminathan Award, at Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi on the 15th of March 2005. Prof. Borlaug, at the age of 91, was in the midst of all the praise showered on him from everybody gathered there. When his turn came, he got up and highlighted India?s advancement in the agricultural science and production and said that the political visionary Shri C. Subramaniam and Dr. MS Swaminathan, pioneer in agricultural science were the prime architects of First Green Revolution in India. Even though Prof Norman Borlaug was himself a partner in the first green revolution, he did not make a point on this. He recalled with pride, Dr. Verghese Kurien who ushered White Revolution in India. 

         Then the surprise came. He turned to scientists sitting in the third row, fifth row and eighth row of the audience. He identified Dr. Raja Ram, a wheat specialist, Dr.SK Vasal, a maize specialist, Dr. BR Barwale, a seed specialist. He said, all these scientists had contributed for India?s and Asia?s agricultural science. Dr. Borlaug introduced them to the audience by asking them to stand and ensured that the audience cheered and greeted the scientists with great enthusiasm. This action of Dr. Norman Borlaug, I call it as "Scientific Magnanimity". Friends, if we aspire to achieve great things in life, we need scientific magnanimity to focus the young achievers. It is my experience that great mind and great heart go together. This scientific magnanimity will motivate the scientific community and nurture the spirit of achievement among the young towards science. 

With these words, I inaugurate the Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan 2015. My greetings and best wishes, to all the young participants success in their mission of scientific inventions and discoveries and make the nation proud. 

May God Bless you. 
Oath for the young scientists
I realize that I have within me a submerged power. With nurturing thoughts of success, the power within me, will take a shape, rise and rise. Then, definitely I will achieve the success.

I will learn righteousness in the heart through my parents and from my teachers, I will learn with their experiences of knowledge. 

I will work with integrity and succeed with integrity. 

I will create in my mind, the spirit of what can I give? what can I give. Whatever knowledge I gained, I will share with others. I will give my kindness, I will give my culture learnt from experienced. I will respect others and build friendship. 

I will definitely succeed in my life and also equally I will enjoy success of others. 

I will persuade through affection and love, my parents start a home library small in size with quality books. Every day, I will read good books related to my subjects and great human beings. 

Today a great aim what I will be, has born. I will search and search and reach the knowledge and study. I will work hard and sweat. I will not be afraid of problems. I will become the captain of the problems, defeat the problem succeed. 

Smile is a beautiful human ornament. I will wear it and also give the smile to everybody I will meet. 

I will be known in history as a unique personality, particularly in science and technology. 

My national flag flies in my heart and in will bring glory to my nation.
Suggestions for School Education System Friends, let me give some suggestions for possible mission which can be undertaken to transform school education. 

Skill Development Certificate: Let me elaborate now education and skills. It is reported that in a decade?s time, India will need 300 to 500 million employable skilled youth. Hence, there is a need to completely change the university education syllabus and the secondary school education syllabus. In the secondary school syllabus during the 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th classes, 25% of the time has to be allotted for skill development programme. When the secondary school students come out from the school, they will have two certificates; one for 10+2 qualification, and the other for the unique skill acquired during the four year period. That means, we get every year a skilled bank of millions of children. 

University Professors Teaching in Schools: We can bring the university professors into the dimension of school education. Provisions can be made for every professor has to teach at least 2 weeks in schools every year.

Experiential Learning: To improve the science education we need it to make it more interesting for the students. This can be done by making science more experiential where common day events can be explained in the language by teachers. We can consider creating an open source repository of small experiments, life stories of scientists, interesting facts, and teaching aids. All these should be accessible to all teachers and parents to help them explain science in interesting ways to their students or children.     By, Dr. APJ Abdulkalam

National Missions and opportunities  on Jun 27th 2008
Dear friends, while thinking on typical important missions that will bring societal transformation through competitiveness and propel the vision 2020 missions of India, we could find common grounds for new challenges and opportunities for investments in India. They are the following:
Agriculture and food processing: We are in the mission of generating 400 million tones of food grains with reduced land, with reduced water and with reduced workforce from the present 200 million tonnes. New technology needed in agriculture area from seeds to cultivation to grain, food process and marketing. Value addition in the farm produce will be the focus in our 11th plan period for the reason that it will have impact in the increase in productivity and economic growth. This entire chain will enable employment particularly in rural areas in a big way.

Infrastructure: At this juncture, infrastructure development is a crucial area for development in India. India is aspiring to build hundred million homes within next ten years. The infrastructure development in metropolitan and tier-2 cities needs to be enhanced in the form of new bridges, airports, marketing complexes and industrial units. 40% of the rural areas need to be covered with all weather roads; we need to double the present national highways ratio per 100 square kilometer area. Simultaneously, we are in the process of developing ports, railway systems and airports. For example, the Indian Construction Industry employs over 31 million people for its asset generating activity of around $80 Billion (Rs. 310,000 crore) which includes expenditure of $50 Billion (Rs. 200,000 crore) incurred by the Government. This will need development of specialized quality human resource in all the spectrum of infrastructure activity.

Energy: When I addressed to the nation in 2005, I have set a goal of realizing Energy Independence (coming out of fossil fuel) by the year 2030. When our population may touch 1.4 billion people, demand from power sector will increase from the existing 130,000 MW to about 400,000 MW. This assumes an energy growth rate of 5% per annum. Electric power generation in India now accesses four basic energy sources: Fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal; Hydroelectricity; Nuclear power; and Renewable energy sources such as bio-fuels, solar, biomass, wind and ocean. We need a major thrust in solar energy and wind energy for generating over 120,000 MW by 2030 through these two renewable energy sources. Similarly we are planning to harness over 65,000 MW from hydro power sources and 50,000 MW from nuclear energy sources.

Water Mission: We have a mission on the Networking of Rivers and the task team is evolving the plan of action. Meanwhile, I have also suggested to the state governments interlinking of rivers and other water sources within the state. Number of state governments is actively pursuing this mission. This mission will eliminate the periodical problem of floods experienced in a number of river basin states and manage the draught in most of the time and ensure availability of water and power throughout the year. In addition nation has to embark on water harvesting and desalination of sea water as national missions. Simultaneously another major mission is to create and strengthening the inland waterways programmes and convert into smart waterways.

Sustainable Rural Development through PURA: In India, the development of a rural sector is very important. Government, private and public sectors have been taking up rural development in parts. For example, starting an education institutions, starting a healthcare centers, laying roads, building houses, building a marketing complex, giving a communication link in a particular rural area have been taken up in the past as individual activities. We have a rural development programme PURA which envisages an integrated development plan with employment generation as the focus, driven by provision of the habitat, healthcare, education, skill development, physical and electronic connectivity and marketing.

PURA Mission: The entire country will have 7000 PURAs (Providing Urban Amenities in Rural Areas) encompassing over 600,000 villages. The theme of PURA, apart from concentrating on reinforcing agriculture, will emphasize on agro processing, development of Rural Craftsmanship, dairy, fishing, silk production, so that the non-farm revenue for the rural sector is enhanced, based on the core competence of the region. Also the rural economy will be driven by renewable energy such as solar, wind, bio-fuel and conversion of municipal waste into power. In this approach, the aim is to make sustainable development using the core competence of the rural sector. 

The programmes which I have mentioned above has social, research and technological content. It has substantial amount of business opportunities leading to economic growth in the globalized scenario.

Vision 2020 Missions
Integrated actions for development  Nov 9th  2007

The integrated actions for development of the country are: Education with value system for all leading to entrepreneurship and employment opportunities, Healthcare and Nutritional Security for all, containment of population growth rate to be within a small band and excellent infrastructural facilities including water and energy to be addressed on priority for maintaining the momentum of the economic growth.

Development of agriculture, agro-food processing industries and down stream marketing network would be useful in providing good returns to the farmers. Progressive shift of the workforce from agriculture to manufacturing sector and to the service sector should take place through well conceived industrial and service sector growth. Due to the need for doubling of agricultural production in a decade through technological and managerial inputs in reduced area and training of the farmers in soil enriching, pre and post harvesting and marketing, it has become necessary to reduce the manpower to be deployed for agriculture, resulting in their availability for manufacturing and service sectors. Physical, electronic and knowledge connectivities of seven thousand PURA clusters will result in economic development of the region as a whole By, Dr. APJ Abdul kalam

PURA
Providing Urban Amenities to Rural Areas
The PURA complex would have transformed into a dynamic rural complex with focus on employment potential for all the families of PURA cluster with all the connectivity’s. This PURA complex will have its umbilical connectivity with the nearest university. Let us visualize how the PURA cluster will transform into, by the year 2012, based on the already operational PURA we have discussed: 

a) Provide dwelling units to all the village citizens with clean water supply and sanitation facilities. 
b) The village complex will have 100 percent literacy.
c) Apart from upgrading existing schools, the complex will have a few colleges, world class vocational training institutions in construction, carpentry, welding, natural art; computer maintenance and services, IT Enabled Services, BPO and a Call Center. 
d) People in the PURA complex will be able to get quality healthcare through Tele-medicine and also through mobile clinics via Primary Health Centers. They will be brought under a corporate medical healthcare scheme.
e) Each PURA village complex will be free from diseases like polio, TB, leprosy and malaria and other waterborne diseases. The infant mortality rate will be less than 10.
f) The PURA complex will promote horticulture and floriculture products, apart from agriculture in collaboration with nearby agricultural universities and research institutions.
g) There will be agro-processing industries in each PURA complex for value addition to horticulture produce.
h) Creation of dairy and fish farms in each PURA complex for providing additional non-farm revenue to farmers. They can also produce other dairy products. 
i) Revival of all existing water bodies in the PURA cluster. 
j) Provision of employment to all employable people of the village through additional jobs in dairy, agro-processing, construction, handicraft and tourism enterprises.
k) Overall, per capita income of the PURA cluster should increase by three times and people living below the poverty line should come down to zero in six years. 

Of course to achieve the above performance, a dynamic, empowered PURA management board structure is very vital. This has to be evolved with the active participation of State Governments, district authorities, societal transformers, educational institutions, small scale industries or an enterprise in association with the Panchayat. Finally, it will be managed as a viable and sustainable business proposition through the local entrepreneurship.

IIT DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL OF INDIA

[INTERNATIONAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL OF INDIA]                                                    Govt. of India Registered Trust, Works Related to Information Technology & HRD

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